Academic translation Translation of academic texts, such as scholarly articles, essays, dissertations, doctoral theses, etc.
Audiovisual translation Translation of audiovisual material (cinema, video, etc.). There are different types: dubbing, subtitling, voice-over, narration, half-dubbing, etc.
Consecutive interpreting Form of interpreting where the interpreter takes notes on the speaker’s discourse in order to translate them afterwards. It is appropriate for smaller meetings with few languages. It is usually used in press conferences, formal events, speeches, dinners, short statements, technical visits, interviews, etc.
Copy editing This is not limited to spelling, but also corrects errors in the grammar, typography and text layout. This gives the document visual coherence.
Corpus Collection of the same texts translated into different languages.
Dubbing Replacing the soundtrack in an audiovisual format from one language into another. Consists of rerecording the actors’ voices so that they are synchronised with their vocal movements.
Editing Analysing and amending a text to improve its style so that it gains expression, accuracy and fluidity. The aim is to guarantee that it communicates, in the best possible way, the message the author wishes to convey.
Financial translation Translation of financial texts such as reports, corporate balance sheets, banking newsletters, minutes of shareholders’ meetings, etc.
Globalization Tendency of markets and companies to expand until they reach a point where they surpass national borders.
Glossary Index of words from the same discipline or field of study where their meaning is defined or discussed.
Grammar checking Revising a text in order to eliminate errors of syntax. The result is a refined and ordered text, free from typos and spelling mistakes.
Internationalization Process of designing software so that it can be adapted into different languages and regions without the need to implement engineering or coding changes.
Interpreter Person who explains to others in the language they understand, what is being said in another language they do not understand.
Interpreting booth One of the elements of fixed equipment needed for simultaneous interpreting.
Interpreting, Conference interpreting Oral transmission of a message from one language into another in a natural and fluent fashion, adopting the expression, tone and conviction of the speaker and speaking in the first person.
Language consultancy Linguistic assessment services aimed at solving communication needs or problems.
Legal interpreting Type of interpreting frequent in administrative proceedings. Normally used in notaries, court trials, hearings, tribunals, etc.
Legal translation Translation of legal and juridical texts such as contracts, agreements, wills, litigation documents, trusts, etc.
Legal translation, official translation or certified translation Translating needed for official procedures in public or private institutions such as ministries, embassies, consulates or notaries. They are delivered with the signature and stamp of an official, certified translator who assumes complete legal responsibility for the reliability and accuracy of the translated documents.
Lemma or headword (lema in Spanish) The basic form or word as it is found in a dictionary or encyclopaedia.
Localization, regionalization Process of adapting software for a specific region through the addition of specific components of a locale (regional configuration) and translation of texts.
Machine translation Translation done by a computer. At the present moment, its quality is not very good, nor comparable to translations done by people.
Media interpreting Type of interpreting for the media, such as radio, television, conference calls and videoconferences, etc.
Medical translation Translation of documents on medicine and pharmacology: articles, medical reports, information pamphlets, medicine documentation, etc.
Origin language, source language Language being interpreted or translated from.
Proofreading Correction.
Scientific translation Translation of scientific texts in fields such as medicine, biology, physics, chemistry, mathematics, etc.
Sign language interpreting Interpreting for deaf or deaf and blind people.
Simultaneous interpreting Type of interpreting where the interpreter works while the speaker is talking, using audio equipment, which simultaneously transmits the message to the listeners through headphones. It is used for congresses, seminaries, conferences or meetings with one or more language(s) when a fast and fluent communication is needed.
Subtitles Units of text written on screen by way of translation in films, videos, documentaries and television programmes. The idea is to give an account of the dialogues and discursive elements of the audiovisual material in question. They relate the image to the sound and synchronise them in time and space.
Subtitling Inserting subtitles.
Target language Language being interpreted or translated into.
Transcreation Advertising or creative translation. Consists of adapting an advertising message to a specific local market and target audience. It takes into account the distinctive cultural features of the country or community to which the translation is aimed.
Transcription Converting spoken language into written words. For example, converting an audio or video file to text.
Translation Transmitting a written message from one language to another.
Translation studies Science that teaches the art of translation.
Translator Someone who translates a piece of work or writing.
Voice-over Overlapping of translated voices over the original soundtrack, which continues to be heard at a lower volume. In contrast to dubbing, the voice-over does not aim for perfect synchrony. It’s a form of translation often used in documentaries and news reports.
Whispered interpreting or chuchotage Form of interpreting where the interpreter normally positions themselves near the listener and interprets discretely in their ear, as if they were whispering. It is usually combined with consecutive interpreting and is used in meetings or negotiations with few people.